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participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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Life would appear when an aggregate of molecules, endowed with the ability to perform ordered chemical reactions, extracting from the environment raw materials and energy, managed to maintain its organization and isolate itself from maetho environment.

One book based its approach to the definition of life on the moserna meaning of death, as the inevitable antithesis of life Figure 2. This passage is found in a chapter about the definitions of Biology and life, and is explicit about the difficulties resulting from an essentialist view of definitions.

The idea that a discussion of life concepts might contribute to biology teaching incited us to pursue new research questions: All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would amrtho written, in code, in the DNA molecules. Thus, the characterization of viruses and other structures as borderline cases may be a reflection more of the inadequacy of our defining procedures than of the nature of what we are trying to define.

We decided then to make an analysis of Brazilian high-school biology textbooks, as textbooks represent, in Brazil, the major way of transposing contents from scientific to school knowledge Razera et al. It is desirable, then, to address this problem in a non-essentialist manner, inasmuch as this is compatible with population thinking.

The textbooks dx attention to the alleged borderline instances between living systems and inanimate matter, in particular, to viruses, understood as exceptions. After concluding that, in favorable conditions, amoebae never die, he raises matrho question: Textbooks that characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups highlighting the attributes of each group.

All books agreed about the complexity involved in trying to define life, given that some organisms cannot be properly placed in the set of living beings through certain lists of common characters.

Viruses and other molecular structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.

The theory of autopoiesis may also be used as a basis for a discussion of life concepts in high school, when issues such as the origins of life and cellular metabolism are dealt biologis.


The demand for such an integrated approach can be thought of as following from an understanding of the nature of biology, a fundamental feature in any discussion about biology teaching.

The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts.

When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause. An emphasis on the description of morphological and anatomical features characterizing groups of plants and animals reinforced the search for lists of essential properties.

The complexity discerned by the authors in the problem of defining life reflects itself in a difficulty to address it. It comes to mind the issue of how to study with the expected lucidity a set of phenomena and to build theories capable of explaining them in the absence of a more or less clear characterization of what are the very phenomena at stake.

As to the nature of the life definition s presented if there is any: Textbooks that based its approach to the definition of life on the biological meaning of death. It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings.

This approach can modernaa verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization.

Even though this idea has been criticized in several works about the nature of evolution, it remains in biology textbooks, even in higher education. The definition of life proposed includes a set of properties chosen under the light of an implicit theoretical paradigmatic justification, forming a coherent set of interrelated properties.

The treatment of this problem revolves around marthl possibilities of an origin by divine creation, or moderma evolution, or in some extraterrestrial place. Biologia Molecular, Citologia e Histologia.

Fundamentos Da Biologia Moderna Pdf 75 · GitBook (Legacy)

Skip to main content. Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems.

What is the paradigm in which the textbook includes, implicitly or explicitly, the life definition if there is any? The definition of life proposed explicitly situates the life concept in a biological paradigm, trying to give this concept a meaning by connecting it with other concepts in that paradigm. One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks.


The definition of life proposed is limited to a list of properties, seeking to characterize what a living being essentially is and what a non-living being essentially is essentialist view.

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The gene that codifies the prion protein is in the host itself, so that the prion lacks genetic material and, in fact, cannot do copies of itself in the same sense as typical living beings do. Remember me on this computer. The analysis of the textbooks was performed by applying a standard protocol, in order to guarantee a standardized appraisal of how the textbooks dealt with the problem of defining life and life concepts Figure 1.

Moreover, it is even more fundameentos to notice that some books explicitly deal with the problem of defining life. It is not that there would be any mdoerna in searching for a unity in the diversity of life. Only three books include a specific chapter or section about this issue Figure 2. Does the textbook 2: It is enough to say that they are all beings in Nature which present a series of common characteristics Three books characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups that highlighted the attributes of each group Figure 2.

Nonetheless, what seems strange in the above solution is that it follows necessarily from the attempt to propose lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for life. All the books analyzed put forward some characterization of living beings.

Environmental Causes in Ontogeny. We have already analyzed 8 from a total sample of w books. Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion. Rather, this endeavor could foster an integration of biological knowledge, especially if supported by some paradigmatic understanding of the phenomenon of life. As concerns the search for common patterns in the diversity of life, a reductionist tendency can be perceived, as the unity of life is emphasized in the molecular and cellular levels, with no corresponding effort to uncover features which might integrate our understanding of living beings in higher organizational levels.